Archaeological PowerPoint Presentation, PPT – DocSlides
Marta Mielnik-Sikorska et al. I find relevant in this sense that there is a significant amount of T xT1,T2 among Kashubian Polish especially. Another point of interest is the minor presence of North and Central Asian lineages A, C, D and G, for which the authors present an elaborate rationale: They also suggest that the L2a1l2a, found among the Polish, is of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. L1b1a8 found in Polish and Russians belongs to the wider L1b1a, recently argued to be European-specific. Another point of notice may be the rare HV0 xV found at significant frequencies among Ukranians 4. But the authors make a particular effort to discern within haplogroups H5 and H6, which they find of particular interest. H5 might be with doubts of Italian origin and they consider its coalescence age on the dubious molecular clock estimate methods as clearly pre-Neolithic. Based on these speculative methods they argue that several Slavic-specific clades within H5 may be contemporary in origin with U4a2, common in Central and Eastern Europe.
Treatment to Stabilize Artifact preservation is one of the most important considerations when planning or implementing any action that will result in the recovery of material from a marine archaeological site. It is the responsibility of the excavator or salvor to see that material recovered is properly conserved. The conservation phase is time consuming and expensive, often costing more than the original excavation.
Without conservation, however, most artifacts will perish, and important historic data will be lost. The loss is not just to the excavator but also to future archaeologists, who may wish to reexamine the material.
Displaying 1 – of 19th and 20th Century Parliamentary Papers The House of Commons Parliamentary Papers are an essential primary source for Britain, its colonies, and the wider world. They are the working documents of the British government for all areas of social, political, economic, and foreign policy. Cited in well over 2, dissertations, the scholarly importance of the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers is without peer. Connect to 19th and 20th Century Parliamentary Papers 19th Century Index C19 indexes a wide range of 19th-century British and American books, periodicals, newspapers and other documents such as British Parliamentary papers.
C19 also includes Archives USA, an index to archival repositories and description of their collections. With the exception of journals in the American Periodicals series, C19 does not provide links to full-text articles. Connect to 20th Century African-American Poetry 20th Century American Poetry Collected works and individual volumes of poetry covering the works of most major 20th-century American poets. Over 52, poems from more than poets.
The broad coverage of Twentieth-Century American Poetry includes collected works and individual volumes of poetry from all the major movements and schools, including the New School, the Chicago School, the Southern School, the Confessionals, the Beats, and the Black Mountain poets. For earlier American poetry, see American Poetry The complete text of each poem is included, and any integral images are also scanned.
Introductions and prefaces to the volumes are included, as are all notes and any prose sections.
The course has no prerequisites, however it is recommended to have basic knowledge about archaeology, history of art and medieval history it is recommended to have attended the courses of methodology of archaeological research and medieval history Target skills and knowledge: The course aims to give the students: Knowledge about the relationships between East- and West-Mediterranean between the 6th and the 10th centuries, through the analysis of the commerce, of architectures and of religion.
Knowledge of the climatic and environmental changes between 5th and 10th centuries in the Mediterranean. Description of the scientific innovative methodologies which allowed, in the last decades, new research developments in the archaeological studies in these topics new dating methods, botanical analyses, stable isotopes, etc. Students are required to prepare a ppt presentation related to one of the topics of the class.
Increase sample size, either by conducting extensive field surveys to identify a greater number of datable archaeological deposits, or by combing museum collections .
If a context containing burnt debris and broken artifacts is excavated on a site from a historical period, it is tempting to search the local historical framework for references to warfare or a disaster in the region, and to date the excavated context accordingly. Fission-track dating-microscopic tracks in glassy material. Obsidian Hydration-hydration rim forms when stone tools are made from obsidian.
Luminescence dating-heating of crystalline material. Samples containing milligrams to 4 grams final carbon AMS- Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, measures on the atomic level so can go to 70, years. Cosmic rays from the sun strike Nitrogen 14 atoms in the atmosphere and cause them to turn into radioactive Carbon 14, which combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide. Living things are in equilibrium with the atmosphere, and the radioactive carbon dioxide is absorbed and used by plants.
The radioactive carbon dioxide gets into the food chain and the carbon cycle. All living things contain a constant ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon At death, Carbon 14 exchange ceases and any Carbon 14 in the tissues of the organism begins to decay to Nitrogen 14, and is not replenished by new C The change in the Carbon 14 to Carbon 12 ratio is the basis for dating.
Dating Methods – PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Distinguish between absolute dating and relative dating. Review law of superposition. Discuss the importance of half-life and radioactive decay. Conduct activity on relative and absolute dating. Two Ways to Skin a CatRelative dating of fossils is a system in which a fossil is given an age designation in terms of epoch, period, or era which can be compared to other geologic units of time as older or younger, but without the burden of assigning a specific number.
For example, a Pennsylvanian lycopod bark impression is older than a Cretaceous oyster and younger than a Mississippian brachiopodRelative dating is best explained when covering the law of superposition and a geologic time scaleAbsolute dating of a fossil involves assigning a specific quantity of age with a fossil such as saying that an echinoid, Hardouinia bassleri, is 83 million years old.
Geoarchaeology is the application of concepts and methods of the earth sciences (especially geology, geomorphology, hydrology, sedimentology, pedology, and exploration geophysics) to archaeological problems. It provides evidence for the development, preservation, and destruction of archaeological sites, and for regional-scale environmental change and the evolution of the physical landscape.
How Does Carbon Dating Work Carbon is a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon; also known as radiocarbon, it is an isotopic chronometer. C dating is only applicable to organic and some inorganic materials not applicable to metals. Gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting and accelerator mass spectrometry are the three principal radiocarbon dating methods.
What is Radiocarbon Dating? Radiocarbon dating is a method that provides objective age estimates for carbon-based materials that originated from living organisms. The impact of the radiocarbon dating technique on modern man has made it one of the most significant discoveries of the 20th century.
Song of Myself
The study of the human past through material evidence of humansthe archaeological record. Archaeologists attempt to reconstruct and interpret the cultural change and variation of the human past. It is more than just finding stuff. Archaeology is not about fossil or dinosaursObjects alone do not help us muchWhen things are found in context, in their original setting, we gain a much more information.
Context, means where an artifact is found. Not just the place, but the soil, the site type, the layer the artifact came from, what else was in that layer.
Excavations – PowerPoint PPT ancient denture found in time archaeological excavations near sidon. ancient. Chapter 9 -. paleoanthropology: reconstructing early hominid behavior and ecology. chapter outline. definition of hominid the strategy of paleoanthropology paleoanthropology in action—olduvai gorge dating methods excavations at.
Why do we need AMS? In order to measure radiocarbon ages it is necessary to find the amount of radiocarbon in a sample. This measurement can be made either by measuring the radioactivity of the sample the conventional beta-counting method or by directly counting the radiocarbon atoms using a method called Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS. Measurement of the radioactivity of the sample works very well if the sample is large, but in 9 months less than 0.
The method is relatively new because it needs very complicated instruments first developed for Nuclear Physics research in the late 20th century. How Accelerator Mass Spectrometry works In common with other kinds of mass spectrometry, AMS is performed by converting the atoms in the sample into a beam of fast moving ions charged atoms.
The mass of these ions is then measured by the application of magnetic and electric fields. The measurement of radiocarbon by mass spectrometry is very difficult because its concentration is less than one atom in 1, , , , The accelerator is used to help remove ions that might be confused with radiocarbon before the final detection.
The sample is put into the ion source either as graphite or as carbon dioxide. It is ionised by bombarding it with caesium ions and then focused into fast-moving beam energy typically 25keV. The ions produced are negative which prevents the confusion of 14C with 14N since nitrogen does not form a negative ion. The first magnet is used in the same way as the magnet in an ordinary mass spectrometer to select ions of mass 14 this will include large number of 12CH2- and 13CH- ions and a very few 14C- ions.
How do Archaeologists Date Artifacts?
This paper will present the results of an extensive re-evaluation and supplementing of the availa The aim of this PhD research was to use archaeological and geological material to characterise changes in the geomagnetic direction in the UK. This period of time was selected for two reasons:
Paleoanthropology. Paleoanthropology. The study of human and primate evolution. The study of human ancestors. The study of ancient populations. In order to determine how and when this evolution happens, we will need to look at dating methods used in archaeology.. Dating Methods.
Art in south and southeast asia before bayla, kenn, eddie Presentation Transcript 1. Devi- The primary form of all Goddesses, balances out the male aspect o the Divine. The Indian Subcontinent 7. Nude Torso from Harappa c. ComparisonTwo main styles emerged: Nude male torso has then contrasting naturalistic style: Yakshi Holding a Fly-WhiskFrontal rigor of pose suggest strong sense of authorityJewelry is prominentCommon hairstyle with bun at front and backSoft, youthful face and stomach musclesFlesh shows polished sheenC.
Despite someabstraction, Mauryan art had many realistic elements similar to Western art Lion Capital from SarnathC. The Period of the Shungas and Early AndhrasLocal rule by regional dynasties returnsBuddhism becomes very influential especially with Stupas—religious monuments enclosing relic chambers2nd Century caves become common use for holy artRock-cut halls ComparisonThe closely spaced columns that separate the side aisles from the main aisle are unlike any known in the West.
They are important examples in the long and complex evolution of the many Indian styles. The Kushan and Later Andhra Periods3 schools developed: Gandhara, Mathura, and Amaravati which had slighter figures than the other twoGandhara School:
Dating refers to the archaeological tool to date artefacts and sites, and to properly construct history. All methods can be classified into two basic categories: Based on a discipline of geology called stratigraphy, rock layers are used to decipher the sequence of historical geological events. Relative techniques can determine the sequence of events but not the precise date of an event, making these methods unreliable.
Volume 59 , , Pages The Cassignol technique for potassium—Argon dating, precision and accuracy: We describe here its principles and its technology. The limit of detectability of the radiogenic Ar portion corresponds to an error of less than a for K-rich minerals and a few a for basalts. The reliability of the results and the validity of the correction for atmospheric contamination have been checked by analysing historical lavas and by comparison with data obtained from radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating methods.
Moreover, in rocks older than a, the technique permits the accurate dating of minute amounts of pure separated mineral phases. A reconstruction of the recent volcano-tectonic evolution of the Naples area has been carried out. It allows us to establish a model for estimating volcanic hazards in the Phlegrean Fields.
Dating Techniques In Archaeology
I, J, R, and N represent indica, tropical japonica, O. The numbers above the bars in the graphs indicate the percentage of trees in the posterior probability distribution with a given topology or that support a single origin of rice. A Alternative species trees and their proportions in the posterior distribution resulting from analyses of the Tang et al. B Only one well-supported species tree was recovered from the Rakshit et al.
Archaeology, which is situated between the hard natural sciences and social sciences, has adapted the techniques developed in these fields to answer both archaeological and anthropological questions that span the globe over both time and space. The questions that are addressed within the field of Archaeology most commonly relate to the study of diet and mobility in past populations.
While most people are familiar with isotopic analysis related to the study of radiocarbon dating or C , fewer are familiar with the analysis of other isotopes that are present in biological material such as human or animal bone. The stable isotopes of 13C, 15N and 18O differ from the analysis of 14C in that they do not steadily decay over time, thus there is no “half-life. The exploration of isotopic identifiers of mobility, environment, and subsistence in the past also has contemporary relevance in that it can aid in informing policies relating to heritage protection, resource management and, sustainability and perhaps most significantly, help us to learn more about the remarkable ability of our own species to adapt and survive in any number of environmental and cultural circumstances.
Isotope Analysis Methods In order to investigate stable isotopes from human and animal bones, a very small sample of bone is needed for the analysis. Due to advances in accelerated mass spectrometry AMS a small sample which can range from milligrams to 1gram of bone can be used.